# Chapter 6 Using Git at the Command Line

+++ Divide By Cucumber Error. Please Reinstall Universe And Reboot +++

— Terry Pratchett

A version control system tracks changes to files and helps people share those changes with each other. These things can be done by emailing files to colleagues or by using Microsoft Word and Google Docs, but version control does both more accurately and efficiently. Originally developed to support software development, over the past fifteen years it has become the cornerstone of reproducible research.

Version control works by storing a master copy of your code in a repository, which you can’t edit directly. Instead, you check out a working copy of the code, edit that code, then commit changes back to the repository. In this way, version control records a complete revision history (i.e. of every commit), so that you can retrieve and compare previous versions at any time. This is useful from an individual viewpoint, because you don’t need to store multiple (but slightly different) copies of the same script (Figure 6.1). It’s also useful from a collaboration viewpoint, because the system keeps a record of who made what changes and when.

There are many different version control systems, such as CVS, Subversion, and Mercurial, but the most widely used version control system today is Git. Many people first encounter it through a GUI like GitKraken or the RStudio IDE. However, these tools are actually wrappers around Git’s original command-line interface, which gives us access to all of Git’s features. This lesson describes how to perform fundamental operations using that interface; Chapter 7 then introduces more advanced operations that can be used to implement a smoother research workflow.

To show how Git works, we will apply it to the Zipf’s Law project. Our project directory should currently include:

zipf/
├── bin
│   ├── book_summary.sh
│   ├── collate.py
│   ├── countwords.py
│   ├── plotcounts.py
│   ├── script_template.py
│   └── utilities.py
├── data
│   ├── dracula.txt
│   ├── frankenstein.txt
│   └── ...
└── results
├── dracula.csv
├── jane_eyre.csv
├── jane_eyre.png
└── moby_dick.csv

bin/plotcounts.py is the solution to Exercise 5.11.4; over the course of this chapter we will edit it to produce more informative plots. Initially, it looks like this:

"""Plot word counts."""

import argparse

import pandas as pd

def main(args):
"""Run the command line program."""
names=('word', 'word_frequency'))
df['rank'] = df['word_frequency'].rank(ascending=False,
method='max')
df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']
ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency',
y='inverse_rank',
figsize=[12, 6],
grid=True,
xlim=args.xlim)
ax.figure.savefig(args.outfile)

if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description=__doc__)
nargs='?', default='-',
help='Word count csv file name')
default='plotcounts.png',
help='Output image file name')
metavar=('XMIN', 'XMAX'),
default=None, help='X-axis limits')
args = parser.parse_args()
main(args)

## 6.1 Setting Up

We write Git commands as git verb options, where the subcommand verb tells Git what we want to do and options provide whatever additional information that subcommand needs. Using this syntax, the first thing we need to do is configure Git.

$git config --global user.name "Amira Khan"$ git config --global user.email "amira@zipf.org"

(Please use your own name and email address instead of the one shown.) Here, config is the verb and the rest of the command are options. We put the name in quotation marks because it contains a space; we don’t actually need to quote the email address, but do so for consistency. Since we are going to be using GitHub, the email address should be the same as you have or intend to use when setting up your GitHub account.

The --global option tells Git to use the settings for all of our projects on this computer, so these two commands only need to be run once. However, we can re-run them any time if we want to change our details. We can also check our settings using the --list option:

$git config --list user.name=Amira Khan user.email=amira@zipf.org core.autocrlf=input core.editor=nano core.repositoryformatversion=0 core.filemode=true core.bare=false core.ignorecase=true ... Depending on your operating system and version of Git, your configuration list may look a bit different. Most of these differences shouldn’t matter right now, as long as your user name and email are accurate. Git Help and Manual If we forget a Git command, we can list which ones are available using --help: $ git --help

$git config --help ## 6.2 Creating a New Repository Once Git is configured, we can use it to track work on our Zipf’s Law project. Let’s make sure we are in the top-level directory of our project: $ cd ~/zipf
$ls  bin data results We want to make this directory a repository, i.e., a place where Git can store versions of our files. We do this using the init command with . to mean “the current directory”: $ git init .
Initialized empty Git repository in /Users/amira/zipf/.git/

ls seems to show that nothing has changed:

$ls bin data results but if we add the -a flag to show everything, we can see that Git has created a hidden directory within zipf called .git: $ ls -a
.       ..      .git    bin     data    results

Git stores information about the project in this special subdirectory. If we ever delete it, we will lose that history.

We can check that everything is set up correctly by asking Git to tell us the status of our project:

$git status On branch master No commits yet Untracked files: (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) bin/ data/ results/ nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track) “No commits yet” means that Git hasn’t recorded any history yet, while “Untracked files” means Git has noticed that there are things in bin/, data/ and results/ that it is not yet keeping track of. ## 6.3 Adding Existing Work Now that our project is a repository, we can tell Git to start recording its history. To do this, we add things to the list of things Git is tracking using git add. We can do this for single files: $ git add bin/countwords.py

or entire directories:

$git add bin The easiest thing to do with an existing project is to tell Git to add everything in the current directory using .: $ git add .

We can then check the repository’s status to see what files have been added:

$git status On branch master No commits yet Changes to be committed: (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage) new file: bin/book_summary.sh new file: bin/collate.py new file: bin/countwords.py new file: bin/plotcounts.py new file: bin/script_template.py new file: bin/utilities.py new file: data/README.md new file: data/dracula.txt new file: data/frankenstein.txt new file: data/jane_eyre.txt new file: data/moby_dick.txt new file: data/sense_and_sensibility.txt new file: data/sherlock_holmes.txt new file: data/time_machine.txt new file: results/dracula.csv new file: results/jane_eyre.csv new file: results/jane_eyre.png new file: results/moby_dick.csv Adding all of our existing files this way is easy, but we can accidentally add things that should never be in version control, such as files containing passwords or other sensitive information. The output of git status tells us that we can remove such files from the list of things to be saved using git rm --cached; we will practice this in Exercise 6.11.2. What to Save We always want to save programs, manuscripts, and everything else we have created by hand in version control. In this project, we have also chosen to save our data files and the results we have generated (including our plots). This is a project-specific decision: if these files are very large, for example, we may decide to save them elsewhere, while if they are easy to re-create, we may not save them at all. We will explore this issue further in Chapter 13. We no longer have any untracked files, but the tracked files haven’t been committed (i.e., saved permanently in our project’s history). We can do this using git commit: $ git commit -m "Add scripts, novels, word counts, and plots"
[master (root-commit) 173222b] Add scripts, novels, word
counts, and plots
18 files changed, 145296 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 bin/book_summary.sh
create mode 100644 bin/collate.py
create mode 100644 bin/countwords.py
create mode 100644 bin/plotcounts.py
create mode 100644 bin/script_template.py
create mode 100644 bin/utilities.py
create mode 100644 data/dracula.txt
create mode 100644 data/frankenstein.txt
create mode 100644 data/jane_eyre.txt
create mode 100644 data/moby_dick.txt
create mode 100644 data/sense_and_sensibility.txt
create mode 100644 data/sherlock_holmes.txt
create mode 100644 data/time_machine.txt
create mode 100644 results/dracula.csv
create mode 100644 results/jane_eyre.csv
create mode 100644 results/jane_eyre.png
create mode 100644 results/moby_dick.csv

git commit takes everything we have told Git to save using git add and stores a copy permanently inside the repository’s .git directory. This permanent copy is called a commit or a revision. Git gives is a unique identifier, and the first line of output from git commit displays its short identifier 2dc78f0, which is the first few characters of that unique label.

We use the -m option (short for message) to record a short comment with the commit to remind us later what we did and why. (Once again, we put it in double quotes because it contains spaces.) If we run git status now:

## 6.5 Saving and Tracking Changes

Our initial commit gave us a starting point. The process to build on top of it is similar: first add the file, then commit changes. Let’s check that we’re in the right directory:

$pwd /Users/amira/zipf Let’s use plotcounts.py to plot the word counts in results/dracula.csv: $ python bin/plotcounts.py results/dracula.csv --outfile
results/dracula.png

If we check the status of our repository again, Git tells us that we have a new file:

$git status On branch master Untracked files: (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) results/dracula.png nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track) Git isn’t tracking this file yet because we haven’t told it to. Let’s do that with git add and then commit our change: $ git add results/dracula.png
$git commit -m "Add plot of word counts for 'Dracula'" [master 851d590] Add plot of word counts for 'Dracula' 1 file changed, 0 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-) create mode 100644 results/dracula.png If we want to know what we’ve done recently, we can display the project’s history using git log: $ git log
commit 851d590a214c7859eafa0998c6c951f8e0eb359b (HEAD -> master)
Author: Amira Khan <amira@zipf.org>
Date:   Sat Dec 19 09:32:41 2020 -0800

Add plot of word counts for 'Dracula'

commit 173222bf90216b408c8997f4e143572b99637750
Author: Amira Khan <amira@zipf.org>
Date:   Sat Dec 19 09:30:23 2020 -0800

Add scripts, novels, word counts, and plots

git log lists all commits made to a repository in reverse chronological order. The listing for each commit includes the commit’s full identifier (which starts with the same characters as the short identifier printed by git commit), the commit’s author, when it was created, and the commit message that we wrote.

Scrolling Through Logs

Our log this time isn’t very long, so you were likely able to see it printed to your screen without needing to scroll. When you begin working with longer logs (like later in this chapter), you’ll notice that the commits are shown in a pager program, as you saw in Section 2.8 with manual pages. You can apply the same keystrokes to scroll through the log and exit the paging program.

The plot we have made is shown in Figure 6.2. It could be better: most of the visual space is devoted to a few very common words, which makes it hard to see what is happening with the other ten thousand or so words.

An alternative way to visually evaluate Zipf’s Law is to plot the word frequency against rank on log-log axes. Let’s change the section:

    ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency',
y='inverse_rank',
figsize=[12, 6],
grid=True,
xlim=args.xlim)

to put 'rank' on the y-axis and add loglog=True:

    ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency',
y='rank', loglog=True,
figsize=[12, 6],
grid=True,
xlim=args.xlim)

When we check our status again, it prints:

$git status On branch master Changes not staged for commit: (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) (use "git restore <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) modified: bin/plotcounts.py no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a") The last line tells us that a file Git already knows about has been modified. Hints from Git After executing Git commands, you may see output that differs slightly from what is shown here. For example, you may see a suggestion for git checkout in place of git restore after executing the code above, which means you’re running an different version of Git. As with most tasks in coding, there are often multiple commands to accomplish the same action with Git. This chapter will show output from Git version 2.29. If you see something different in your Git output, you can try the commands we present here, or follow the suggestions included in the output you see. When in doubt, check the documentation (e.g., git checkout --help) if you get stuck. To save those changes in the repository’s history, we must git add and then git commit. Before we do, though, let’s review the changes using git diff. This command shows us the differences between the current state of our repository and the most recently saved version: $ git diff
diff --git a/bin/plotcounts.py b/bin/plotcounts.py
index f274473..c4c5b5a 100644
--- a/bin/plotcounts.py
+++ b/bin/plotcounts.py
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ def main(args):
method='max')
df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']
ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency',
-                         y='inverse_rank',
+                         y='rank', loglog=True,
figsize=[12, 6],
grid=True,
xlim=args.xlim)

The output is cryptic, even by the standards of the Unix command line, because it is actually a series of commands telling editors and other tools how to turn the file we had into the file we have. If we break it down into pieces:

1. The first line tells us that Git is producing output in the format of the Unix diff command.
2. The second line tells exactly which versions of the file Git is comparing: f274473 and c4c5b5a are the short identifiers for those versions.
3. The third and fourth lines once again show the name of the file being changed; the name appears twice in case we are renaming a file as well as modifying it.
4. The remaining lines show us the changes and the lines on which they occur. A minus sign - in the first column indicates a line that is being removed, while a plus sign + shows a line that is being added. Lines without either plus or minus signs have not been changed, but are provided around the lines that have been changed to add context.

Git’s default is to compare line by line, but it can be instructive to instead compare word by word using the --word-diff or --color-words options. These are particularly useful when running git diff on prose rather than code.

After reviewing our change we can commit it just as we did before:

$git commit -m "Plot frequency against rank on log-log axes" On branch master Changes not staged for commit: (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) (use "git restore <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) modified: bin/plotcounts.py no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a") Whoops: we forgot to add the file to the set of things we want to commit. Let’s do that and then try the commit again: $ git add bin/plotcounts.py
$git status On branch master Changes to be committed: (use "git restore --staged <file>..." to unstage) modified: bin/plotcounts.py $ git commit -m "Plot frequency against rank on log-log axes"
[master 582f7f6] Plot frequency against rank on log-log axes
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)

The Staging Area

Git insists that we add files to the set we want to commit before actually committing anything. This allows us to commit our changes in stages and capture changes in logical portions rather than only large batches. For example, suppose we add a few citations to the introduction of our thesis, which is in the file introduction.tex. We might want to commit those additions but not commit the changes to conclusion.tex (which we haven’t finished writing yet). To allow for this, Git has a special staging area where it keeps track of things that have been added to the current changeset but not yet committed (Figure 6.3).

Let’s take a look at our new plot (Figure 6.4):

$python bin/plotcounts.py results/dracula.csv --outfile results/dracula.png Interpreting Our Plot If Zipf’s Law holds, we should still see a linear relationship, although now it will be negative, rather than positive (since we’re plotting the rank instead of the reverse rank). The low-frequency words (below about 120 instances) seem to follow a straight line very closely, but we currently have to make this evaluation by eye. In the next chapter, we’ll write code to fit and add a line to our plot. Running git status again shows that our plot has been modified: On branch master Changes not staged for commit: (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) (use "git restore <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) modified: results/dracula.png no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a") Since results/dracula.png is a binary file rather than text, git diff can’t show what has changed. It therefore simply tells us that the new file is different from the old one: diff --git a/results/dracula.png b/results/dracula.png index c1f62fd..57a7b70 100644 Binary files a/results/dracula.png and b/results/dracula.png differ This is one of the biggest weaknesses of Git (and other version control systems): they are built to handle text. They can track changes to images, PDFs, and other formats, but they cannot do as much to show or merge differences. In a better world than ours, programmers fixed this years ago. If we are sure we want to save all of our changes, we can add and commit in a single command by giving git commit the -a option: $ git commit -a -m "Update dracula plot"
[master ee8684c] Update dracula plot
1 file changed, 0 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
rewrite results/dracula.png (99%)

The Git commands we’ve covered so far (git add, git commit, git diff) represent the tasks you perform in a basic Git workflow in a local repository (Figure 6.5a).

## 6.6 Synchronizing with Other Repositories

Sooner or later our computer will experience a hardware failure, be stolen, or be thrown in the lake by someone who thinks that we shouldn’t spend the entire vacation working on our thesis. Even before that happens we will probably want to collaborate with others, which we can do by linking our local repository to one stored on a hosting service such as GitHub.

Where’s My Repository?

So far we’ve worked with repositories located on your own computer, which we’ll also refer to as local or desktop repositories. The alternative is hosting repositories on GitHub or another server, which we’ll refer to as a remote or GitHub repository.

The first steps are to create an account on GitHub, and then select the option there to create a new remote repository to synchronize with our local repository. Select the option on GitHub to create a new repository, then add the requested information for your Zipf’s Law project. The remote repository doesn’t have to have the same name as the local one, but we will probably get confused if they are different, so the repository we create on GitHub will also be called zipf. The other default options are likely appropriate for your remote repository. Because we are synchronizing with an existing repository, do not add a README, .gitignore, or license; we’ll discuss these additions in other chapters.

Next, we need to connect our desktop repository with the one on GitHub. We do this by making the GitHub repository a remote of the local repository. The home page of our new repository on GitHub includes the string we need to identify it (Figure 6.6).

We can click on “HTTPS” to change the URL from SSH to HTTPS and then copy that URL.

HTTPS vs. SSH

We use HTTPS here because it does not require additional configuration. If we want to set up SSH access so that we do not have to type in our password as often, the tutorials from GitHub, BitBucket, or GitLab explain the steps required.

Next, let’s go into the local zipf repository and run this command:

$cd ~/zipf$ git remote add origin https://github.com/amira-khan/zipf.git

Make sure to use the URL for your repository instead of the one shown: the only difference should be that it includes your username instead of amira-khan.

A Git remote is like a bookmark: it gives a short name to a URL. In this case the remote’s name is origin; we could use anything we want, but origin is Git’s default, so we will stick with it. We can check that the command has worked by running git remote -v (where the -v option is short for verbose):

$git remote -v origin https://github.com/amira-khan/zipf.git (fetch) origin https://github.com/amira-khan/zipf.git (push) Git displays two lines because it’s actually possible to set up a remote to download from one URL but upload to another. Sensible people don’t do this, so we won’t explore this possibility any further. Now that we have configured a remote, we can push the work we have done so far to the repository on GitHub: $ git push origin master

This may prompt us to enter our username and password; once we do that, Git prints a few lines of administrative information:

Enumerating objects: 35, done.
Counting objects: 100% (35/35), done.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads
Compressing objects: 100% (35/35), done.
Writing objects: 100% (35/35), 2.17 MiB | 602.00 KiB/s, done.
Total 35 (delta 7), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
remote: Resolving deltas: 100% (7/7), done.
To https://github.com/amira-khan/zipf.git
* [new branch]      master -> master

If we view our GitHub repository in the browser, it now includes all of our project files, along with all of the commits we have made so far (Figure 6.7).

We can also pull changes from the remote repository to the local one:

$git pull origin master From https://github.com/amira-khan/zipf * branch master -> FETCH_HEAD Already up-to-date. Pulling has no effect in this case because the two repositories are already synchronized. Fetching The second line in the remote configuration we viewed earlier is labeled push, which makes sense given the command we used (git push) to upload changes from our local to remote repositories. Why is the other line labeled fetch instead of pull? Fetching and pulling both download new data from a remote repository, but only pulling integrates those changes into your local repository’s version history. Because git fetch doesn’t alter your local files, it’s used to view changes between local and remote versions. The Git commands we’ve covered in this section (git pull, git push) are the main tasks associated with incorporating remote repositories into your workflow (Figure 6.5b). Amira’s Repository Amira’s repository referenced in this section does exist in on GitHub at amira-khan/zipf; you may find it a useful reference point when proceeding through the rest of the book. ## 6.7 Exploring History Git lets us look at previous versions of files and restore specific files to earlier states if we want to. In order to do these things, we need to identify the versions we want. The two ways to do this are analogous to absolute and relative paths. The “absolute” version is the unique identifier that Git gives to each commit. These identifiers are 40 characters long, but in most situations Git will let us use just the first half dozen characters or so. For example, if we run git log right now, it shows us something like this: commit ee8684ca123e1e829fc995d672e3d7e4b00f2610 (HEAD -> master, origin/master) Author: Amira Khan <amira@zipf.org> Date: Sat Dec 19 09:52:04 2020 -0800 Update dracula plot commit 582f7f6f536d520b1328c04c9d41e24b54170656 Author: Amira Khan <amira@zipf.org> Date: Sat Dec 19 09:37:25 2020 -0800 Plot frequency against rank on log-log axes commit 851d590a214c7859eafa0998c6c951f8e0eb359b Author: Amira Khan <amira@zipf.org> Date: Sat Dec 19 09:32:41 2020 -0800 Add plot of word counts for 'Dracula' commit 173222bf90216b408c8997f4e143572b99637750 Author: Amira Khan <amira@zipf.org> Date: Sat Dec 19 09:30:23 2020 -0800 Add scripts, novels, word counts, and plots The commit in which we changed plotcounts.py has the absolute identifier 582f7f6f536d520b1328c04c9d41e24b54170656, but we can use 582f7f6 to reference it in almost all situations. While git log includes the commit message, it doesn’t tell us exactly what changes were made in each commit. If we add the -p option (short for patch), we get the same kind of details git diff provides to describe the changes in each commit: $ git log -p

The first part of the output is shown below; we have truncated the rest, since it is very long:

commit ee8684ca123e1e829fc995d672e3d7e4b00f2610
Author: Amira Khan <amira@zipf.org>
Date:   Sat Dec 19 09:52:04 2020 -0800

Update dracula plot

diff --git a/results/dracula.png b/results/dracula.png
index c1f62fd..57a7b70 100644
Binary files a/results/dracula.png and
b/results/dracula.png differ
...

Alternatively, we can use git diff directly to examine the differences between files at any stage in the repository’s history. Let’s explore this with the plotcounts.py file. We no longer need the line of code in plotcounts.py that calculates the inverse rank:

df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']

If we delete that line from bin/plotcounts.py, git diff on its own will show the difference between the file as it is now and the most recent version:

diff --git a/bin/plotcounts.py b/bin/plotcounts.py
index c4c5b5a..c511da1 100644
--- a/bin/plotcounts.py
+++ b/bin/plotcounts.py
@@ -11,7 +11,6 @@ def main(args):
names=('word', 'word_frequency'))
df['rank'] = df['word_frequency'].rank(ascending=False,
method='max')
-    df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']
ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency',
y='rank', loglog=True,
figsize=[12, 6],

git diff 582f7f6, on the other hand, shows the difference between the current state and the commit referenced by the short identifier:

diff --git a/bin/plotcounts.py b/bin/plotcounts.py
index c4c5b5a..c511da1 100644
--- a/bin/plotcounts.py
+++ b/bin/plotcounts.py
@@ -11,7 +11,6 @@ def main(args):
names=('word', 'word_frequency'))
df['rank'] = df['word_frequency'].rank(ascending=False,
method='max')
-    df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']
ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency',
y='rank', loglog=True,
figsize=[12, 6],
diff --git a/results/dracula.png b/results/dracula.png
index c1f62fd..57a7b70 100644
Binary files a/results/dracula.png and
b/results/dracula.png differ

Note that you will need to reference your git log to replace 582f7f6 in the code above, since Git assigned your commit a different unique identifier. Note also that we have not committed the last change to plotcounts.py; we will look at ways of undoing it in the next section.

The “relative” version of history relies on a special identifier called HEAD, which always refers to the most recent version in the repository. git diff HEAD therefore shows the same thing as git diff, but instead of typing in a version identifier to back up one commit, we can use HEAD~1 (where ~ is the tilde symbol). This shorthand is read “HEAD minus one”, and gives us the difference to the previous saved version. git diff HEAD~2 goes back two revisions and so on. We can also look at the differences between two saved versions by separating their identifiers with two dots .. like this:

$git diff HEAD~1..HEAD~2 diff --git a/bin/plotcounts.py b/bin/plotcounts.py index c4c5b5a..f274473 100644 --- a/bin/plotcounts.py +++ b/bin/plotcounts.py @@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ def main(args): method='max') df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank'] ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency', - y='rank', loglog=True, + y='inverse_rank', figsize=[12, 6], grid=True, xlim=args.xlim) If we want to see the changes made in a particular commit, we can use git show with an identifier and a file name: $ git show HEAD~1 bin/plotcounts.py
commit 582f7f6f536d520b1328c04c9d41e24b54170656
Author: Amira Khan <amira@zipf.org>
Date:   Sat Dec 19 09:37:25 2020 -0800

Plot frequency against rank on log-log axes

diff --git a/bin/plotcounts.py b/bin/plotcounts.py
index f274473..c4c5b5a 100644
--- a/bin/plotcounts.py
+++ b/bin/plotcounts.py
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ def main(args):
method='max')
df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']
ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency',
-                         y='inverse_rank',
+                         y='rank', loglog=True,
figsize=[12, 6],
grid=True,
xlim=args.xlim)

If we wanted to view the contents of a file at a given point in the version history, we could use the same command, but separating the identifier and file with a colon:

$git show HEAD~1:bin/plotcounts.py This allows us to look through the file using a paging program. ## 6.8 Restoring Old Versions of Files We can see what we changed, but how can we restore it? Suppose we change our mind about the last update to bin/plotcounts.py (removing df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']) before we add or commit it. git status tells us that the file has been changed, but those changes haven’t been staged: $ git status
On branch master
Changes not staged for commit:
(use "git add <file>..." to update what will be
committed)
(use "git restore <file>..." to discard changes in
working directory)
modified:   bin/plotcounts.py

no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")

We can put things back the way they were in the last saved revision using git restore, as the screen output suggests:

$git restore bin/plotcounts.py$ git status
On branch master
nothing to commit, working tree clean

As its name suggests, git restore restores an earlier version of a file. In this case, we used it to recover the version of the file in the most recent commit.

Checking Out with Git

If you’re running a different version of Git, you may see a suggestion for git checkout instead of git restore. As of Git version 2.29, git restore is still an experimental command, and operates as a specialized form of git checkout. git checkout HEAD bin/plotcounts.py is equivalent to the last command run.

We can confirm the file has been restored by printing the relevant lines of the file:

$head -n 19 bin/plotcounts.py | tail -n 8  df['rank'] = df['word_frequency'].rank(ascending=False, method='max') df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank'] ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency', y='rank', loglog=True, figsize=[12, 6], grid=True, xlim=args.xlim) Because git restore is designed to restore working files, we’ll need to use git checkout to revert to earlier versions of files. We can use a specific commit identifier rather than HEAD to go back as far as we want: $ git checkout 851d590 bin/plotcounts.py
Updated 1 path from c8d6a33

Doing this does not change the history: git log still shows our four commits. Instead, it replaces the content of the file with the old content:

$git status On branch master Changes to be committed: (use "git restore --staged <file>..." to unstage) modified: bin/plotcounts.py $ head -n 19 bin/plotcounts.py | tail -n 8
    df['rank'] = df['word_frequency'].rank(ascending=False,
method='max')
df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']
ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency',
y='inverse_rank',
figsize=[12, 6],
grid=True,
xlim=args.xlim)

If we change our mind again, we can use the suggestion in the output to restore the earlier version. Because checking out the changes added them to the staging area, we need to first remove them from the staging area:

$git restore --staged bin/plotcounts.py However, the changes have been unstaged but still exist in the file. We can return the file to the state of the most recent commit: $ git restore bin/plotcounts.py
$git status On branch master nothing to commit, working tree clean $ head -n 19 bin/plotcounts.py | tail -n 8
    df['rank'] = df['word_frequency'].rank(ascending=False,
method='max')
df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']
ax = df.plot.scatter(x='word_frequency',
y='rank', loglog=True,
figsize=[12, 6],
grid=True,
xlim=args.xlim)

We have restored the most recent commit. Since we didn’t commit the change that removed the line that calculates the inverse rank, that work is now lost: Git can only go back and forth between committed versions of files.

This section has demonstrated a few different ways to view differences among versions, and to work with those changes (Figure 6.5c). These commands can operate on either individual files or entire commits, and the behavior of them can sometimes differ based on your version of Git. Remember to reference documentation, and use git status and git log frequently to understand your workflow.

## 6.9 Ignoring Files

We don’t always want Git to track every file’s history. For example, we might want to track text files with names ending in .txt but not data files with names ending in .dat.

To stop Git from telling us about these files every time we call git status, we can create a file in the root directory of our project called .gitignore. This file can contain filenames like thesis.pdf or wildcard patterns like *.dat. Each must be on a line of its own, and Git will ignore anything that matches any of these lines. For now we only need one entry in our .gitignore file:

__pycache__

which tells Git to ignore any __pycache__ directory created by Python (Section 5.8).

Remember to Ignore

Don’t forget to commit .gitignore to your repository so that Git knows to use it.

## 6.10 Summary

The biggest benefit of version control for individual research is that we can always go back to the precise set of files that we used to produce a particular result. While Git is complex (Perez De Rosso and Jackson 2013), being able to back up our changes on sites like GitHub with just a few keystrokes can save us a lot of pain, and some of Git’s advanced features make it even more powerful. We will explore these in the next chapter.

## 6.11 Exercises

### 6.11.1 Places to create Git repositories

Along with information about the Zipf’s Law project, Amira would also like to keep some notes on Heaps’ Law. Despite her colleagues’ concerns, Amira creates a heaps-law project inside her zipf project as follows:

$cd ~/zipf # go into zipf directory, which is a Git repo$ mkdir heaps-law   # make a subdirectory zipf/heaps-law
$cd heaps-law # go into heaps-law subdirectory$ git init heaps-law     # make heaps-law a Git repository

Is the git init command that she runs inside the heaps-law subdirectory required for tracking files stored there?

### 6.11.2 Removing before saving

If you’re working on an older version of Git, you may see an output from git status suggesting you can take files out of the staging area using git rm --cached. Try this out:

1. Create a new file in an initialized Git repository called example.txt.
2. Use git add example.txt to add this file.
3. Use git status to check that Git has noticed it.
4. Use git rm --cached example.txt to remove it from the list of things to be saved.

What does git status now show? What (if anything) has happened to the file?

### 6.11.3 Viewing changes

Make a few changes to a file in a Git repository, then view those differences using both git diff and git diff --word-diff. Which output do you find easiest to understand?

### 6.11.4 Committing changes

Which command(s) below would save changes to myfile.txt to a local Git repository?

# Option 1
$git commit -m "Add recent changes" # Option 2$ git init myfile.txt
$git commit -m "Add recent changes" # Option 3$ git add myfile.txt
$git commit -m "Add recent changes" # Option 4$ git commit -m myfile.txt "Add recent changes"

1. Create a new Git repository on your computer called bio. Make sure the directory containing this repository is outside your zipf project directory!
2. Write a three-line biography for yourself in a file called me.txt and commit your changes.
3. Modify one line and add a fourth line.
4. Display the differences between the file’s original state and its updated state.

### 6.11.6 Committing multiple files

The staging area can hold changes from any number of files that you want to commit as a single snapshot.

From your new bio directory, following after the previous exercise (in which you have uncommitted changes to me.txt):

1. Create another new file employment.txt and add the details of your most recent job.

2. Add the new changes to both me.txt and employment.txt to the staging area and commit those changes.

### 6.11.7 GitHub timestamps

1. Create a remote repository on GitHub for your new bio repository.
2. Push the contents of your local repository to the remote.
3. Make another change to your local repository (e.g. by editing me.txt or employment.txt) and push these changes as well.
4. Go to the repo you just created on GitHub and check the timestamps of the files.

How does GitHub record times, and why?

### 6.11.8 Workflow and history

Assume you made the following changes in your bio repository. What is the output of the last command in the sequence below?

$echo "Sharing information about myself." > motivation.txt$ git add motivation.txt
$echo "Documenting major milestones." > motivation.txt$ git commit -m "Motivate project"
$git restore motivation.txt$ cat motivation.txt
1. Sharing information about myself.

2. Documenting major milestones.

Sharing information about myself.
Documenting major milestones.
1. An error message because we have changed motivation.txt without committing first.

### 6.11.9 Ignoring nested files

Suppose our project has a directory results with two subdirectories called data and plots. How would we ignore all of the files in results/plots but not ignore files in results/data?

### 6.11.10 Including specific files

How would you ignore all .dat files in your root directory except for final.dat? (Hint: find out what the exclamation mark ! means in a .gitignore file.)

### 6.11.11 Exploring the GitHub interface

Browse to your zipf repository on GitHub. Under the Code tab, find and click on the text that says “NN commits” (where “NN” is some number). Hover over and click on the three buttons to the right of each commit. What information can you gather/explore from these buttons? How would you get that same information in the shell?

### 6.11.12 Push versus commit

Explain in one or two sentences how git push is different from git commit.

When we initialized our remote zipf GitHub repo, we didn’t add a README.md or license file. If we had, what would have happened when we tried to link our local and remote repositories?

### 6.11.14 Recovering older versions of a file

Amira made changes this morning to a shell script called data_cruncher.sh that she has been working on for weeks. Her changes broke the script, and she has now spent an hour trying to get it back in working order. Luckily, she has been keeping track of her project’s versions using Git. Which of the commands below can she use to recover the last committed version of her script?

1. $git checkout HEAD 2. $ git checkout HEAD data_cruncher.sh
3. $git checkout HEAD~1 data_cruncher.sh 4. $ git checkout <unique ID of last commit> data_cruncher.sh
5. $git restore data_cruncher.sh 6. $ git restore HEAD

### 6.11.15 Understanding git diff

Using your zipf project directory:

1. What would the command git diff HEAD~9 bin/plotcounts.py do if we run it?
2. What does it actually do?
3. What does git diff HEAD bin/plotcounts.py do?

### 6.11.16 Getting rid of staged changes

git checkout can be used to restore a previous commit when unstaged changes have been made, but will it also work for changes that have been staged but not committed? To find out, use your zipf project directory to:

1. Change bin/plotcounts.py.
2. Use git add on those changes to bin/plotcounts.py.
3. Use git checkout to see if you can remove your change.

Does it work?

### 6.11.17 Figuring out who did what

We never committed the last edit that removes the calculation of inverse rank. Remove this line from plotcounts.py, then commit the change:

df['inverse_rank'] = 1 / df['rank']

Run the command git blame bin/plotcounts.py. What does each line of the output show?

## 6.12 Key Points

• Use git config with the --global option to configure your user name, email address, and other preferences once per machine.
• git init initializes a repository.
• Git stores all repository management data in the .git subdirectory of the repository’s root directory.
• git status shows the status of a repository.
• git add puts files in the repository’s staging area.
• git commit saves the staged content as a new commit in the local repository.
• git log lists previous commits.
• git diff shows the difference between two versions of the repository.
• Synchronize your local repository with a remote repository on a forge such as GitHub.
• git remote manages bookmarks pointing at remote repositories.
• git push copies changes from a local repository to a remote repository.
• git pull copies changes from a remote repository to a local repository.
• git restore and git checkout recover old versions of files.
• The .gitignore file tells Git what files to ignore.